Male Fertility Examination

Male fertility examination is a simple and routine procedure.

Initially, we start with:
  1. History: of previous pregnancy, cryptorchidism, any infections during childhood, diabetes, cancer, smoking, medications, and frequency of coitus or impotence are crucial points to evaluate the fertility capacity of a man
  2. Semen analysis: A semen analysis is the most common procedure when it comes to male fertility testing and seeking to determine if there is a male infertility factor. Sperm is collected into a specimen jar and presented to a lab technician who examines the sperm under a microscope in order to evaluate the count, shape, appearance, and mobility of the sperm. While determining the sperm count, the embryologist will also be checking to see if the sperm concentration is above or below 15 million sperm cells per millilitre of ejaculation fluid
  3. If the sperm count is found to be low, the fertility specialist will probably ask for a Hormonal test like blood Testosterone, FSH, LH, TSH and Prolactin levels
  4. Karyotype, Yq-microdeletion and Cystic fibrosis mutation are a common genetic test performed when sperm is below 1 million
  5. Then an Ultrasound of the scrotum will also be inquired to locate damage or blockages in the male reproductive tract, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts
  6. Urine analysis and semen cultures can be used to search for white blood cells–an indicator of possible infection. Urinalysis will also show the possible presence of sperm in the urine–an indicator of a possible problem with ejaculation known as retrograde ejaculation
  7. In some cases, additional tests are performed like DNA fragmentation and FISH analysis of the sperm, which shows the genetic damage of each sperm
  8. Rarely, agglutination test is performed to examine under a microscope whether the spermatozoa are clumping together (clumping prevents sperm from swimming through cervical mucus)
  9. Oxidative stress testing is common in cases of unexplained infertility or failed IUIs
  10. Eventually, FNA or microTESE is performed in cases of Azoospermia with more than 50% successful retrieval rate using also special enzymes

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